Παρασκευή, 8 Ιουλίου 2016

2000 ΝΑΥΤΕΣ ΚΑΙ ΕΝΑ ΚΟΡΙΤΣΙ ταινία του 1960



Δυο νέοι, μια νεαρή τραγουδίστρια και ένας ναύτης που κάνει τη θητεία του είναι ερωτευμένοι. Λόγω αργοπορημένης επιστροφής του νέου από την έξοδό του επιβάλλεται πολυήμερος περιορισμός. Εκείνη τον αναζητά και μπαίνει κρυφά στο στρατόπεδο μέσα σε ένα κιβώτιο. Τελικά μετά από πολλές κωμικές καταστάσεις βγαίνει από ένα πολεμικό πλοίο.

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Τετάρτη, 6 Ιουλίου 2016

Inside the world’s best kindergarten.

At Fuji Kindergarten outside Tokyo, kids make the most of a magical environment designed just for them. The roof of their oval-shaped school, designed by Tokyo-based firm Tezuka Architects, is an endless playground, and trees grow right through classrooms.
So how do you build to let children be children? Says Takaharu Tezuka (TED Talk: The best kindergarten you’ve ever seen): Think like a kid. He was inspired by his own daughter and son, now twelve and nine, who he says “have become a part of his body.” As they grew up, their habits and desires became his, and in designing his school with his wife, Yui, he only needed to channel them to know what to build. Explore the school and dive into Daddy and Mommy Tezuka’s kid-centered design thinking.

The playground lets kids run forever

“We designed the school as a circle, with a kind of endless circulation. When we started, I had no preconceived notions. Studying other kindergartens was like looking in the rearview mirror of a car: Even if you look very closely, you can’t see anything in front.”

Kids can slide to class

“We put in a small mound of dirt at the bottom of the stairs leading from the roof — this was a trick to make the stairs shorter. But then the children started taking away the dirt to make mud bowls — 6oo kids take mud away, and the mound started to disappear! The school had to keep asking the construction company to put mud back. (As the soil got harder, the kids stopped taking it home.) See the slide? I knew kids love to slide, but I actually wasn’t very keen on putting it in, because it tells children what they should and shouldn’t do. Without tools, the kids have to think for themselves and create games. But in the end we kept it: We needed a fire escape.”

Safety drills are super cute

“Japan gets ten percent of the world’s big earthquakes, so children have these earthquake drills. They take these cotton hats from under the table to protect their heads in case something falls. It’s a very Japanese thing.”

Being a non-human animal is encouraged

“Japanese building code says you have to have a vertical handrail with bars 100 millimeters apart so the kids can’t put their heads through. But: They can put their legs in, and kids love to swing their legs. Chimpanzees do the exact same thing — it’s a kind of instinct. And the way they do that is so cute.”

Anything can be a toy

“We had to build around the trees already there on the land. It wasn’t easy — we couldn’t cut the roots, which spread as wide as the tree crowns. We added these safety nets so the students wouldn’t fall through the holes around the trees. But I know kids, and they love to play with nets. Whenever they see a hammock, they want to jump into it, to shake it. These were really just an excuse for me to give the kids another way to play.”

Skylights for peekaboo

“The kids love to look through the skylights from the roof. ‘Where’s my friend?’ ‘What’s going on underneath in class?’ And when you look down, you always see kids looking up from below. Here, distraction is supposed to happen. There are no walls between classrooms, so noise floats freely from one class to the other, and from outside to inside. We consider noise very important. When you put children in a quiet box, some of them get really nervous.”

A chair can be a train

“Every month at Fuji the teachers and kids rearrange the classroom furniture. This little boy and girl were supposed to help make a new configuration, but they’re useless! They’re playing train instead. We filled the school with about 600 of these boxes, which are made from this very light wood known as kiri wood. It won’t hurt the kids if they hit their heads on the corner.”

A place for water-cooler talk

“These days Japanese kids only talk to computers. I hate it. I thought, if we put a well in each classroom, they’ll be forced to talk to each other. There’s a phrase in Japanese,ido bata kaigi, which means, ‘conference around the well.’ Women used to meet and exchange information when they went to get water. I wanted the children to do the same.”

Kids can also climb to class

“In 2011, we built an annex to the school with two more classrooms and some playing areas. We called it ‘Ring around the Tree,’ because when the architect Peter Cook visited he said it reminded him of the song ‘Ring Around the Rosie.’ I thought the tree should be more important than the building, so I made the building as light as possible. In this school, children are encouraged to climb trees. If a kid is strong enough, they can reach the upper level without using the stairs. Other schools might not allow this, but the principal here believes children know their own limits. They stop when they have to stop.”
Photos courtesy of Tezuka Architects. Photo of the “Ring Around the Tree” building by Katsuhisa Kida/FOTOTECA.

How to make creative cities — from buildings to buses

How to make creative cities — from buildings to buses

I am in love with cities,” says British designer and architect Thomas Heatherwick (TED Talk: Building the seed cathedral). “It’s just incredible that we all live together, and together we add up to something incredibly rich.” Heatherwick has already come up with some pretty bold urban designs — including a garden-topped bridge across the River Thames, and London’s sleek new red city buses, wrapped in ribbons of glass. Here, the soft-spoken, 45-year-old architect describes how to bring a human scale and whimsical sensibility to urban life, to create a fabulous future fit for us all..

Every city has a unique chemistry. “We have a duty to protect the idiosyncrasies we discover in each city, and not treat them like luxuries,” Heatherwick says. Preserving that richness is a foundational philosophy for his London studio, founded in 1994 and now with a staff of 160 and design projects in metropolitan areas all around the world. “Otherwise we risk forgetting the unique local factors that make a place special. Sadly, these are vanishing, making the equator and the Arctic Circle all look the same.” For Pier55 in Manhattan, a public park and performance space, Heatherwick has come up with an undulating topography of lush lawns and pathways on a structure that juts into the Hudson River, with sweeping city and water views that celebrate the city’s dynamic skyline and its relationship with the sea.
The best signature style is no signature style. Some architects have a distinct style that can be spotted a mile away: the biomorphic forms of Zaha Hadid, for instance, or Frank Gehry’s sculptural sheets of metal on roofs and facades. Heatherwick says his main interest is making things different. “It feels rude to go around the world imprinting your [design] DNA everywhere,” he says. “Every project needs its own philosophy, and that will lead the outcome.” So a set of artist studios in Wales are clad in hand-crinkled, paper-thin steel, while his design for theBombay Sapphire gin distillery in Laverstoke, England, has arched glasshouses connected to historic brick mill buildings.
Design is physical work. Often involving axes. Designers are makers and tinkerers, and in the Heatherwick Studio you’ll find axes, chisels, chainsaws and other hand tools and see staff mixing concrete and experimenting with materials like copper, bronze and paper. (The “Spun” chair, for instance, is made from rotation-molded plastic.) They also use computers and 3D printers, of course, but Heatherwick warns against depending on technology for too much creative firepower. “If something is complex, we give up and think computers can do it all, but computers can’t think. In fact, they handicap some parts of the thinking process,” he says. “Let’s keep a balance between hammers and 3D printers. After all, how many objects do you really love that have been 3D printed?”
The greatest project of all is day-to-day life. “We realized in a moment of navel-gazing that the biggest project we’ve had is the studio itself and how our work and approach has evolved over 20 years,” Heatherwick says. “We’re not experts at anything, but we’re experts at not being experts, and we’ve developed a system to do this.” That means thinking large and then zooming in close, doing research and analysis, hunting down the real problem to solve, and asking questions and breaking that down “until the real thing is discovered.” At the studio, designers test and experiment with materials to see how people respond to its touch and feel. “There is a great responsibility, because some of the things we create are among the biggest objects made by we wee humans,” he says.
America is a land of opportunity. After establishing his reputation in the UK and taking on projects in Asia, Africa and the Middle East, the US now looms large for Heatherwick. High-profile assignments on the drawing board include the new Google headquarters in Mountain View, California (with Danish architecture firm BIG), and a multimillion-dollar public space and artistic centerpiece for the Hudson Yards development on the west side of New York City. “There is a sense of possibility in the US, and a phenomenal energy,” he says. That’s especially true of New York, a city he’s been visiting for more than 40 years. “The passion and enthusiasm ran out in the 1970s and ’80s, but in the last ten years the confidence has come back. The wind is in the sails again, and that is a great relief.”.
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The most interesting ideas in architecture right now

The most interesting ideas in architecture right now   Fred Bernstein.

Architecture expos are often futurist fantasias of design — but this year’s Venice Biennale explores how humanity’s first art can house (and treat) us all better.

So-called “starchitecture,” flashy buildings designed by high-profile architects, has been the face of the industry for decades now. But at this year’s Venice Biennale of Architecture — an expo that usually celebrates the very best architecture participating countries have to offer — some more interesting ideas emerged. This Biennale is more about building a better world than a better building, with participants (who include not just countries but universities, NGOs and private firms) addressing issues such as poverty, disease, segregation, access to sanitation and pollution. Take a look.

Let architects bear witness

On May 15, 2014, 17-year-old Nadeem Nawara was shot dead in the Palestinian village of Beitunia. Researchers at London-based Forensic Architecture performed complex audio and video analyses to help determine which of two soldiers was responsible. Among its techniques: using geographic data, surveys, and photographs to produce a three-dimensional model of the relevant section of Beitunia. Using the model, principal investigator Eyal Weizman reports, “we drew the line of sights for both soldiers, and found that only one had a clear view to the position of Nawara when he was shot.”

Use drones to deliver necessities to remote villages

Miracles can come by air. Jonathan Ledgard, a former journalist, envisions drones bringing necessities, including medicine and tools, to the vast number of African villages that don’t have reliable road access (the same way towns that never had wired phones now have cell service). His organization, the Red Line cargo drone network, has organized a demonstration project (call it a pilotless pilot program) in Rwanda. Norman Foster, through his foundation, has designed the project’s droneports, arched buildings where the craft will land, and where their cargo can be unloaded and stored safely. As Foster said, “Drones could go from killing machines to living machines.” Photo courtesy of Nigel Young and the Norman Foster Foundation.

Let communities tell you — or even show you — what kinds of buildings they need

Caracas architect Alejandro Haiek has helped build a number of recreational and arts facilities in Venezuela. He writes: “When we began occupying the abandoned parking lot in Caracas that would become Tiuna El Fuerte Cultural Park, residents knew they wanted a cultural center, but didn’t know what it should look like. Instead of proposing a design, we invited local performers — dancers, skaters, musicians — to start using the space as it was. This led to the creation of instant infrastructures that evolved in real-time.” The building Haiek designed made those temporary infrastructures permanent. That approach, he says, “guaranteed the continued use of the center by the community.” Photo by Francesco Galli.

Use abandoned buildings as sources of new materials

At the U.S. pavilion, 12 architecture firms presented ideas for sections of Detroit in need of reinvention. One of those firms, T+E+A+M, reimagined the city’s vast, abandoned Packard Plant as a rich stockpile of resources. “Broken bricks, concrete chunks, fragments of glass and other materials are collected, sorted and granulated. Off-site waste materials from consumer, industrial and agricultural streams are also processed and mixed with those materials,” write the architects, explaining how they create a kind of aggregate that can be formed into building blocks. “Detroit doesn’t have a materials problem; its materials have an image problem.”

Let people tell their own story

Manuel Herz, a Basel-based architect who maintains a private practice while also doing human rights work, has devoted a decade of his life to telling the story of the Sahrawi people, who were forced to flee their homes in Morocco in 1975 and now live in camps in Algeria. Yes, he brought in a western photographer, Iwan Baan, to photograph the camps. But he also had 30 Sahrawi women weave rugs depicting the camps, sometimes as architectural renderings and other times as maps. Seeing the settlements depicted in such a labor-intensive and personal way makes the Sahrawi plight palpable. Here, the medium truly is the message. Photo by Iwan Baan.

Listen to the people who build your buildings

For society to be more fair, the workers who erect condos and office buildings have to come out of the shadows. In Poland’s pavilion, videos of construction workers, complete with heart-rending narrations, began that process. One ditchdigger recalls hearing a passing mother tell her toddler son, “Do well in school or you’ll end up like him.” The argument: In a world of fair trade coffee, why not fair trade housing — where developers promise to pay workers a living wage and take their safety seriously? Says curator Dominika Janicka, “By presenting the stories of persons directly involved in the building process, we ask whether ‘fair trade’ is achievable in the field and, if so, what would it be?” Photo by Andrea Avezzù.

Use bees to help determine the biological makeup of a city

Kevin Slavin (TED Talk: How algorithms shape our world), together with his Playful Systems group at the MIT Media Lab, and various collaborators including the Mori Building Company, have taken on a not-so-playful task: producing a microbiological map of Venice. Their fieldwork is performed by honeybees, who live in the Palazzo Mora, in a hive modified to capture “bee debris.” The bees fly around the island city, and while gathering pollen also collect microbes, which they drop into the trash heap at the bottom of the hive. The microbes are sent to labs for metagenomic sequencing. One goal is to learn about differences in microbial communities in different cities, and how this might affect ways of protecting and improving human health. But more broadly, Slavin writes, “my collaborators and I are interested in building a cultural imagination for the vast and invisible world that surrounds us.” Photo courtesy of Kevin Slavin.

If you’re going to welcome immigrants, design cities to accommodate them

The German pavilion was physically altered to invite people in; doors were turned into large portals that can’t be locked. The message of the pavilion, curated by a team from theDeutsches Architekturmuseum, is that a country receiving immigrants (Germany took in about 1 million in 2015) should build or retrofit “arrival cities,” municipalities designed around newcomers’ needs. Arrival cities should provide cheap rents, access to ethnic networks that facilitate adjustment and easy transportation to jobs. Many of the ideas were derived from the 2010 book Arrival City: How the Largest Migration in History Is Reshaping Our World, by Canadian journalist Doug Saunders, who wrote, “Successful arrival cities create prosperous middle classes; failed arrival cities create poverty and social problems.”Photo by Felix Torkar.

Don’t just redesign houses — redesign ways of paying for them

Alejandro Aravena (TED Talk: My architectural process? Bring the community into the process), the director of this year’s Biennale and the winner of the 2016 Pritzker prize, has pioneered the idea of “incremental housing” — residential units that are half-finished by contractors, making them affordable, then completed by homeowners when they have the time and money. The UK pavilion, dubbed Home Economics, provided a variant on Aravena’s concept. One part of the pavilion, curated by British-Venezuelan designer Julia King, proposes building houses without non-essential finishes or features, allowing banks to provide mortgages that working class people can afford. Homeowners would then provide the non-essentials over time.

Hack natural processes for architecture

Life Object, the Israeli pavilion, was packed with ideas for ways architecture can borrow from biology. One project investigates ways of heating, cooling and ventilating buildings based on the “natural air conditioning system” of the mammalian nose. Another manipulates bacteria to “light up” in the presence of pollutants, acting as microscopic sentinels. One group investigated whether bryozoa — colonial aquatic invertebrates — could be used to create building skeletons the way they create their own skeletons. Another looked at males of the sapphirinid copepods, small marine crustaceans that have the ability to change color in response to light conditions, suggesting possible use in paints and building materials. Photo by Francesco Galli.

Restoring the world’s oldest library

Restoring the world’s oldest library

The ancient al-Qarawiyyin Library in Fez isn’t just the oldest library in Africa. Founded in 859, it’s the oldest working library in the world, holding ancient manuscripts that date as far back as 12 centuries. But modern life had taken a toll on the library, with its buildings falling into disrepair. That’s why in 2012, the Moroccan Ministry of Culture asked TED Fellow and architect Aziza Chaouni to rehabilitate the library so that it can reopen to the general public. She describes the challenges inherent in undertaking a daunting, historic project. (Spoiler alert: she was successful; the library reopens in May 2016!)
First, some history. The al-Qarawiyyin Library was created by a woman, challenging commonly held assumptions about the contribution of women in Muslim civilization. The al-Qarawiyyin, which includes a mosque, library, and university, was founded by Fatima El-Fihriya, the daughter of a rich immigrant from al-Qayrawan(Tunisia today). Well educated and devout, she vowed to spend her entire inheritance on building a mosque and knowledge center for her community. According to UNESCO, the result is the oldest operational educational institution in the world, with a high-profile role call of alumni. Mystic poet and philosopher Ibn Al-‘Arabi studied there in the 12th century, historian and economist Ibn Khaldun attended in the 14th century, while in medieval times, Al-Qarawiyyin played a leading role in the transfer of knowledge between Muslims and Europeans.
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Entrance to the al-Qarawiyyin Library reading room. Photo: Aziza Chaouni.
The library’s deteriorating condition meant precious manuscripts were under threat from the elements.“When I first visited, I was shocked at the state of the place,” says Chaouni. “In rooms containing precious manuscripts dating back to the 7th century, the temperature and moisture were uncontrolled, and there were cracks in the ceiling.” At risk: ancient volumes covering centuries of knowledge in fields from theology to law, grammar to astronomy. While scholars have always had access to the materials, the library’s deteriorating condition meant it had long been closed to the public. In 2012, Kuwait’s Arab Bank provided a grant for cultural preservation to the Moroccan Ministry of Culture, who asked Chaouni not only to restore the buildings and protect the materials, but to open the library as a new public space.
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A fountain and courtyard patio garden under construction. Photo: Aziza Chaouni.
Bringing a 1,157-year-old library up to date includes challenges — and surprises. Over the centuries, the library had been expanded via a hodgepodge of interconnected buildings, each one set on a different level of a steep hill. Chaouni’s job was to unify and upgrade them all to the same standard. “Throughout the years, the library underwent many rehabilitations, but it still suffered from major structural problems, a lack of insulation, and infrastructural deficiencies like a blocked drainage system, broken tiles, cracked wood beams, exposed electric wires, and so on,” says Chaouni of the practical architectural challenges she faced.
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The entrance to the library reading room, with restored tiles on the stairs. Photo: Aziza Chaouni.
Meanwhile, restoring the ancient library while trying to respect its authenticity posed its own problems. For instance, how to find similar material to match missing or broken pieces of ancient zellige (mosaic) or cracked wooden railings and ceiling beams? Cleaning delicate plaster carvings without breaking them was hard, too. And the project was full of surprises: “One of the startling aspects about restoring a building this old is that you never know what’s behind a wall. You could scrap it and find a painting, take out the painting and find a door — and so on. We discovered some unexpected things, especially underground, such as a centuries-old sewage system.”
The trick: Restore the past and look to the future. While working hard to protect and preserve, Chaouni had to bring a sense of 21st-century pragmatism to the project. “I didn’t want the building to become an embalmed cadaver!” she says. “There has to be a fine balance between keeping the original spaces, addressing the needs of current users, including students, researchers and visitors, and integrating new sustainable technologies — solar panels, water collection for garden irrigation, and so on.” Another thing that needed updating: the library’s fountains. Embedded within the dense urban fabric of the UNESCO World Heritage Medina of Fez, fountains are part of the city’s vast and ancient water network. Chaouni took special care to restore the library’s original courtyard fountains, but where necessary, she created them from scratch, using local materials and construction systems, and introducing passive energy.
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The library’s main reading room. The original room was too dim to read in, so a new lighting system with a central chandelier has been installed. Photo: Aziza Chaouni.
More than three years since the project broke ground, the library will open in May 2016. The public will be able to wander through a complex that includes a reading room, book stacks, a conference room, a manuscript restoration laboratory, and a rare books collection — along with new administrative offices and a café. Chaouni also commissioned furniture from local craftsmen who used native wood, and built courtyard umbrellas that provide shade and mist on hot summer days. Meanwhile, the 12th-century cupola will host permanent and temporary exhibition spaces. A proud, tired Chaouni is today adding important final touches, and looking forward to welcoming the library’s first guests. “Both Moroccans and foreign visitors will get to glimpse, for the first time, some of the library’s amazing and unique manuscripts, as well as to enjoy its architecture.”

Orson Bean: Η μαύρη λίστα του μακαρθισμού δεν είναι τίποτα μπροστά στο κυνήγι μαγισσών που έχει εξαπολύσει η αριστερά σήμερα

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